For the 20 years that I’ve been working with dogs, two notions have continued to be commonly held amongst dog owners, even though the model from which they came was discarded by science long ago. They are, that people need to eat before dogs do and people must always proceed through doorways first.
These are routinely practiced with the belief that they clearly establish the human as ‘pack leader’. Knowing that the pack model is incorrect and has been replaced, should be reason enough to drop these tactics. Similar to using an earth-centered model to interpret and understand our world, our attitude and approach to our dogs will be off base when we follow this outdated theory. We now know that naturally occurring canid groups don’t follow these rules, so what’s the point of us doing it? To an onlooker, the act of eating a cracker before feeding the dog somehow translating into supremacy in the household, probably seems pretty silly. Or the mere act of going through a door before your dog verifying your authority… Really?
The simple addition of some structure or routine will often change the way a dog ‘behaves’. Just as with kids, routines reduce stress because of the predictability they afford. They also allow expectations to remain consistent. These are both good things. And one canʼt deny that having some order around doorways and during feeding times is beneficial. What if we focus on “how” rather than on “who”? Real value is in the opportunity to build impulse control and provide things your dog really wants when they are willing to offer calm behaviour and work with you.
In the picture to the right, the person isnʼt really focused on what the dog is doing.
- Is the dog calm or excited?
- Is the dog responding to her and waiting, or is the handler (and the leash) doing all the work?
For the handler, itʼs all about taking that first step through the doorway. If she dropped the leash, there would be nothing stopping the dog from bolting through the door.
What if instead, we used the dogʼs interest in going through the door as a way to reinforce some attention and patience? In the picture below, the dog is calm and focusing on her handler. Will the dog get to go first, or the handler; perhaps theyʼll go through together. Whatʼs important is that the dog is waiting to get some direction and the ʻOK to goʼ. Not only is this a much safer protocol, it also develops some great behaviours. AND the leash isnʼt doing the work, the dog is.
Getting started at the doorway:
There are a few steps involved in teaching your dog to wait patiently at an open door. This is an easy way to begin the process. Remember that the point of this is to have the dog learn to wait without being prompted to. Instead you’ll wait for behavior you like.
Before you start, decide what behavior will ʻworkʼ for your dog to open the door. If they get excited easily and find it difficult to settle, you may want to start with just some quiet and four-on-the-floor. You may be able to hold out for a sit the first time – this will depend on your dog.
With your dog on leash stand in front of the closed door. Wait to see what your dog does. He may try a variety of behaviours, such as jumping, barking or pawing. Remain quiet until he offers the behavior you want.
As soon as he does, Voila! – the door opens and you can release him to go through – “Letʼs go!”
So youʼve probably already guessed that, as with the doorways, Iʼm going to tell you to drop the “eat something firstʼ routine. Youʼre right! A better choice is once again to help your dog develop some impulse control and offer polite behavior for things they want. Perhaps youʼre thinking proudly “My dog already does. I ask him to sit before every meal”. Thatʼs a great start, but thereʼs an important part missing. The dog offering a polite sit.
The difference between physically restraining your dog using a leash and having him exhibit impulse control, is pretty apparent. You may be thinking however, whatʼs the difference between asking for sits and waiting for your dog to offer them? By waiting for the dog to offer behaviour:
- your dog has to think about whatʼs happening
- this will help him be in a calmer, less reactive state
- he will develop some impulse control – a vital skill
- heʼll make choices and offer behaviour to get what he wants
This is completely different than a dog that is prompted or made to do something. You and your equipment shouldn’t be making all the effort. If that’s the case, there’s no need for your dog to develop impulse control or manners. Itʼs like having a 30-year-old child that still needs to be reminded to say ʻpleaseʼ and ʻthank youʼ. Thereʼs an added bonus – the need to nag your dog will be greatly reduced too!
Want to give it a try? Hereʼs how:
Decide what you would like your dog to do at mealtimes – being quiet and fouron-the-floor, for example.
Begin your normal routine of preparing dinner, paying attention to your dog through each step. We want to show him that calm and polite behavior works right from the beginning, not just when you’re about to put the food dish on the floor.
As long as he remains calm you can continue.
If he begins barking or jumping at any point, calmly without saying anything, cease preparation and pause until he calms down again. You may even need to leave the area to help him settle. As soon as he settles, begin again.
In the early stages, you will most likely have to stop and start a number of times. That’s OK. Your dog is having to work through the challenge of figuring out how to make you continue, along with dealing with some frustration. He’ll also be developing some impulse control, so it’s worth your time.
Once you make it to actually having food in the dish and are ready to give it to your dog, pause and WAIT for him to sit. If you’ve been asking for it at mealtimes already, it might not take long before he chooses to do it on his own. Either way, it’s important that you let him figure it out. When he does, quickly put the food down and tell him how great he is.
You can take solace in the fact that one client took 42 minutes to give their dog dinner the first time they tried this. Breakfast the next morning took 90 seconds. Your patience will pay off. Remember that the value of this lies in the dog needing to think about what to do and offering it, rather than just being told what to do.
So it’s time to dump those out-of-date habits. You can eat last, allow your dog through doorways first and still have a great relationship and a well-mannered dog.
Originally published in Pet Connection Magazine
Why is play important?
Through the simple act of play, puppies learn and reinforce bite inhibition, develop tolerance, learn to control excitement and develop social skill. Puppies that have left the litter too soon or are kept in isolation, typically have poor bite inhibition and often feel overwhelmed in dog-dog interactions, either shying away, losing their temper or getting too rough.
It can not be emphasized enough that reliable bite inhibition (a gentle mouth) is the most important skill your dog can have. Any good help you can get teaching your young dog this skill is invaluable. Puppies playing with other puppies is the way nature intended to teach bite inhibition. Puppies will quickly let one another know when the biting is too rough. By giving your young puppy the opportunity to play with different puppies throughout their development, they will get the practice and reinforcement they need to curb their bite before stronger adult jaws and teeth are in place.
While your young dog is still maturing it’s very important that you carefully direct their interactions with other dogs. By allowing your young one to play with dogs that do not possess good social skills themselves, you may be doing more damage than good. Bullying or rough play can be intimidating – your puppy may become defensive when meeting new dogs. Some puppies will begin to copy the rough play and you’ll have a playground bully on your hands.
You are your puppy’s guardian. You are the one to keep them safe and teach them what they need to know to be successful and comfortable in our world. By carefully selecting your young dog’s playmates and supervising their interactions, you can help them to develop good social skills.
Just as with our best friends, dogs tolerate more from their regular playmates, and it is important that they have the opportunity to meet unfamiliar dogs to keep their confidence and skills developing in a positive direction. Different breeds of dogs often have particular ways of interacting with one another. Allowing your puppy to interact with lots of different kinds of dogs will help them to fine tune their skills and increase their tolerance. If you are able to supervise their interactions with the help of the other dogs’ parents, short play sessions are great.
Remember, that it is not necessary or useful that your puppy greet or play with every dog you come across. First, not all dogs dig puppies. It is an important but sad lesson for your puppy that some dogs want nothing to do with them. Overly outgoing puppies need to learn that it is not polite to go barging into another dog’s space. Ask the parent if their dog is comfortable meeting puppies before you presume to go say hi. If there’s no one in sight perhaps it’s best to skip that dog. You’re the one responsible for keeping your puppy’s socializing positive. There’s no need for getting bitten on the snout! Secondly, you will teach your puppy tolerance and reinforce that you are directing all their activities by allowing them to say hi to some but not all the dogs you come across. And don’t forget to praise your dog for smooth greetings – this will help to set the tone for future encounters if you let him know she’s making good choices now.
Parents all too often throw away the training tool of using greetings or play as a real-life reward by allowing their young dog to automatically interact with every dog they come across without first setting the dog up:
- Before you let your puppy say hi to another dog (or person), make sure they’re calm. Ask or wait for them to sit – or even better, wait for them to check in with you before you tell them ‘go say hi!’
- Before sending your little one off to play, practice getting their attention with some really groovy treats. Throughout the play session call your puppy back to you, praise them (feed a treat if safe) and then send them off to play again. This will help with recalls and show your puppy you’re part of the fun!
Things to look for in a good playmate:
- The other dog stays calm during initial greetings – this allows your puppy to meet in a calm fashion.
- Pick calm, secure playmates for rowdy puppies – this will discourage them from bullying and learn to control their excitement during playtime.
- Choose gentle playmates for shy puppies – this will allow them to develop confidence.
- In general, it is best to avoid putting young puppies with puppies more than two months older than them. The older puppy will typically have the advantage and tend to be domineering.This again will likely lead to fearful behaviour or rough play.
Keeping Play Positive
It is normal in play for one dog to assume the more assertive role of ‘being on top’ at times. Although some personalities prefer to be this way all the time, it’s good play for both participants to have a turn at this. Also, some dogs love to chase while others love to be chased. It’s great play for dogs to switch roles regularly. There should be balance in play. One player should not be be using the other like a toy. Good players pay attention to each other, adjusting their intensity and behaviour based on what the other dog is doing.
If your puppy’s starting to feel overwhelmed, give him a break by keeping the other dog away for a time – don’t rescue him by picking him up. He’ll learn to recover more quickly and realize he can do it on his own.
During play, there should be frequent breaks when the dogs (using sits, shakes or sniffs) take a moment to cool down before resuming play. If you sense that one or more of the dogs is not allowing this to happen, either step in and separate the group or call your puppy over to you and give him a short break.
And keep in mind:
It’s important that your puppy’s adult playmates have good bite inhibition. Corrections to an unruly puppy, such as growls or posturing are a normal part of a puppy’s education, punctures are not. (Please note that dogs do bite on occasion. The important thing is that they do not do damage.)
During adolescence, increased size, confidence and hormones can often lead to rough and inappropriate play. To discourage these behaviours from being reinforced and becoming a habit, it is important that your young dog has play time with dogs that have great play and social skills. Just as in early puppyhood it is vital that they have good role models.
As your dog matures it is essential that you continue providing appropriate play opportunities and greetings with other dogs. Although a regular group of friends can help to stabilize and encourage adolescents through their difficult and often traumatizing ‘coming out’, they must be exposed to a variety of new dogs to maintain good social skills and remain comfortable meeting unknown dogs.
Remember that all your young dog’s interactions with you, other people and other dogs are influencing the way they look at the world and the skills they’re developing to cope with everything in it. Simply allowing them to play with any dog and thinking they’re getting the positive socializing they need may be setting both of you up for trouble. Choose wisely.
For more information on supervising play, check out Dog Park 911
And for more dog training and care information visit:
Over the last two decades dog daycares have become a convenient option for many families. They can provide company for the dog with separation anxiety; keep the dogs that get bored and frustrated at home for the day, active and entertained; some people even use them to help socialize their younger dogs.
With the number of daycares available nowadays, you can be choosy. But how can you decide if one daycare is better than another? What things should you look for and what questions should you ask? When vetting a daycare there are many overlooked considerations that are just as important to your dog’s health and well-being as vaccines.
As with most dog-related services, daycares are unregulated. Because of this, anyone can open a daycare, no matter how limited their experience with dogs. Having a love for dogs or having them all your life are not qualifications for being responsible for looking after a group of dogs. Whether you are using daycare simply for babysitting or to help your dog develop skills around other dogs, it is equally important that you take the time to check out potential facilities carefully before you drop your dog off for the first time.
Finding out the facility’s philosophy, protocols and experience is a crucial first step. If these are not up to par, then everything else will be of little consequence. A modern, attractive layout is an eye-catcher for sure. And a clean and safe environment is certainly important for the care of any animal. Looks aren’t everything though and spending a lot of resources on making a facility attractive to people, but skimping on research, training and the education of those looking after your dog, is all too common and a BIG red flag.
One of the biggest drawbacks of most daycares is that their protocols and setup are not based on what we now know about dogs. Being responsible for looking after any number of dogs while using outdated information as a guide is not only inappropriate it’s also dangerous.
- Have they had formal training in dog behaviour?
- What is their philosophy in the handling and management of the dogs in their care?
- How do they handle misbehaviour? Do they use squirt-bottles? Do they correct the dogs? Or do they give time outs so the dog can take a break?
If they think dogs are wolf-wanna-be’s and the group at their daycare is a pack with individuals vying for position and needing to be dominated for control, RUN. This is old information. Any caregiver should be better informed. It is vital that you find out what the knowledge base and qualifications of the staff is. They should be skilled in managing the dogs in a safe and kind manner.
Another dangerous aspect of most daycares is that they don’t have a good understanding of what safe and appropriate interactions look like. Dogs are typically put together that should not be together, not supervised adequately and allowed to be active for too long.
- Most people ask what the maximum number of dogs allowed is. This a good question, but even more importantly is how many dogs are together at a time.
- How many people are actively supervising the dogs?
- Most play involves dogs pairing off. Can that happen?
- How often do the dogs take breaks during their visits and what else do they do other than play?
All too often dogs are over-stimulated and allowed to interact inappropriately. This allows some dogs to become rough and bullying in their behaviour, while others are left to defend themselves. Both situations can lead to behavioural issues. Dogs do not just magically learn manners and social savvy by being around other dogs. It takes skill, understanding and experience on the staff’s part to be able to organize, monitor and supervise pairs and groups of dogs. It is vital that those in charge of watching the dogs, understand canine body language and recognize signs of stress and arousal.
As touched on earlier, the facility should be set up so that it best suits the needs of the dogs.
- Are there separate areas for small or shy dogs?
- Can dogs pair off to play?
- Are there separate areas where dogs can safely rest or have a snack?
At our facility, our dogs have ample time for non-dog activity. Many choose to play with other dogs for only a part of their visit. I think parents would be surprised at how much time their dogs want to be doing other things than playing. They enjoy time to investigate and sniff without being hassled by another dog to play; time to chew or work at a food puzzle; time to have a nap or a cuddle with a best friend. In one-space only daycares, these activities are not usually possible. A single area just isn’t good enough. Dogs should be able to be grouped and there should be additional space to rest or participate in non-group activities without having to feel vigilant. It’s neither natural or healthy for a dog to play uninterrupted for hours at a time.
- How will they be provided a chance to go potty?
- Is there a secure, outdoor area with easy access?
Although it’s not possible for all daycares to provide a full-sized outdoor play area, it is a bonus if the dogs are able to have access to some kind of secure outdoor enclosure during their visit, versus having to go out for a walk to do their business and get some fresh air.
Another indication of whether the facility is up-to-date in their care, is the protocols in place for vaccination and pest management.
- Do they require annual vaccinations? If they do, oh oh.
- Do they accept titers?
- Can dogs be on a non-pesticide management program?
Requiring outdated health protocols is usually a tip off that they haven’t done their homework in other areas either. Adopting protocols that make it easier for the facility, rather than what’s best for the dogs, is not a good sign.
- What type of information do they require beyond vaccines and emergency contacts?
- How do they get new dogs started at their facility?
- Are dogs allowed to come everyday?
Many dogs lack the skills, experience or confidence to safely and comfortably be around other dogs in a daycare setting. It’s important that the daycare wants to get behavioural as well as health information from you AND meet your dog before staying for a visit. The facility should be interested in your dog’s early socialization; whether your dog has attended any other kind of group activity; whether they have ever had an incident with another dog – either on the giving or receiving end; if they have bitten a person; whether they are segregated in any way at home; or have shown resource guarding towards items, people or food. These are just a few of the things that should be discussed.
Along with an pre-visit interview, a good daycare should ask for at least one short set up visit. Having an easy, carefully supervised introduction to the daycare will allow them to keep new dogs comfortable, get to know them properly, introduce them to the other dogs properly and recognize any potential issues.
Not all dogs can handle the same amount of time at daycare. Restricting how long and often a dog can attend shows concern for the dog’s well-being versus profits.
And finally, although incidents will be rare at a well-run facility, with good management and prevention keeping dogs safe and comfortable, being prepared for the worst is important.
- What happens if 2 dogs get in a fight? How would they break it up?
- Is their a person with an animal First Aid certificate on site at all times?
- Do they have a relationship with a local vet clinic? What is their policy for emergency vet care?
Having a plan and good protocols in place not only makes good sense, it will afford you extra peace of mind.
Although this list is not complete, I hope that it gives you an idea of the considerations that are important in finding a facility that will make your dog’s daycare experiences fun, safe and positive.
It’s important to recognize that not all dogs are suited for daycare. Dog Days has been able to provide an environment that was supportive and safe for many dogs that really are not candidates for regular daycare.
For more care and training information for your dog visit:
Lisa Kerley BSc, KPA-CTP
For those of you familiar with my training or who follow my articles, you know that I dedicate a lot of time to socialization and emphasize how critical it is for puppies and young dogs. Over the last 18 years, the number of fearful and reactive dogs that I have seen has increased – a lot. The majority of my behavioural work now is working with 8 – 24 month old youngsters that are fearful, reactive or aggressive.
My statistics indicate there are 3 groups that these clients fall into:
- Those that haven’t formally socialized their pups, believing that the key to a ‘good’ dog is obedience.
- Those that waited to begin socializing their pup.
- Those that actively socialized their young pup, but didn’t get it quite right.
There has been so much valid scientific information in the media over the last two decades, that it’s hard to believe early socialization isn’t a part of every young pup’s life as soon as they get home. Unfortunately, people are still following outdated information or are the victims of misinformation.
I’d like to address the things that many parents should do differently when trying to socialize their pup. Even with the best of intentions, many parents still end up with a young dog that doesn’t act like it’s been socialized. After all those hours at the dog park and having met nearly every person in the neighborhood, how is this possible? The two biggest blunders most people make are over-exposing their pup and not pairing socializing experiences with something pleasant for the pup. Both of these are critical to being successful. Not including them will make many socializing efforts a waste of time.
In this article, we will focus on socializing with people. No one wants to have a dog that is fearful or reactive, but a dog that has issues with people is a game changer. Unless you are a hermit living in the middle of nowhere, your life and the way you live it will be impacted. For those of you who have chosen a ‘loyal’, ‘one-person’ or ‘stand-offish’ breed, an effective, well-thought-out socialization program is crucial. These breeds are designed to be suspicious of people outside their core group, so without good socialization they will be stressed or reactive around new people.
Don’t think that if you have chosen a ‘friendly’ breed that you don’t have to worry. ANY dog can potentially be fearful. It is the responsibility of every dog parent to ensure their dogs become comfortable and confident via a good socialization program.
Now I bet many of you are thinking, “What’s the big deal? Get out, find lots of people and get them to pet your dog.” Wrong. That’s why so many dogs end up being reactive or fearful.
Overexposing the Pup
This is this biggest fault in most people’s attempts to socialize their young dog. When meeting people one-on-one, most puppies are made to interact, being petted or handled in some way. This is not necessary to start with. For many pups it will actually make them uncomfortable and cause them to become sensitized to people. And although it is recommended to socialize young pups to lots of people, many also misconstrue this and expose them to too many people at once. Choosing a location or event with large crowds will often be too much for most pups, especially early in their socializing.
Remember that we do not want to flood or overwhelm the pup. It is vital for good socializing that the pup feels comfortable. Exposing the pup does NOT mean they have to actually interact – be patted by or sniff the person. They just need to be aware of people nearby to begin with. As the pup builds confidence, they can interact to a greater degree.
When a person approaches, ask them stop at some distance from the pup. Setting up this initial buffer zone will allow some time for the pup to check out the person from a safe place. This will also give you a chance to make sure the pup is comfortable with this degree of exposure. Keep the pup next to you rather than having them out front. This position will provide them some security and allow them to be assessed and helped more easily, when necessary.
If and only if, the pup looks comfortable should you let the pup get closer and potentially interact with a person. It’s vital that the interaction is not forced on them. They should not be restrained, being held or ask to sit and the person then invading the pup’s space. Remember contact is not the goal. It is to make each interaction comfortable for the pup. This means the pup may be fine to eventually go all the way up to some people and not others. That’s OK. The pup will gain confidence just by having a buffer zone with each and every person to start. They won’t feel rushed or over-faced. You will also gain the ability to read the pup’s body language and choose how to proceed more readily.
Some dogs are more relaxed in larger groups of people as they may feel they ‘get lost in the crowd’ and won’t be noticed and have to interact. In this situation it is vital to manage the exposure. When exposing a pup to larger crowds, choose a position where the pup is not in the thick of things, at least to start. Pick a spot at some distance from the crowd or location. If choosing a busy retail location, for example, don’t start at the front entrance. That’s way too much to start. Instead let the pup watch people from a safe, quiet location – next to your car or on a bench away from all the activity. Make sure the spot doesn’t make the pup feel trapped. Eventually the pup can get closer. That may be able to happen in that session or may need to wait until a future one.
Along with distance, the intensity can be reduced and the pup kept comfortable by picking lower intensity exposures to start, gradually increasing the intensity as the pup shows they are able. Depending on the situation, you can choose locations or times of day when the place is quieter or less crowded. For example, the first time a pup visits a school playground shouldn’t be at recess, when all the kids are there at once and very active. Watching children going into school (from an appropriate distance) would be a better choice to begin with.
It’s Not Positive
Creating exposures that are comfortable and don’t overwhelm your pup is a crucial part of good socializing. If one really wants to maximize the benefits of a pup’s exposures, there is one more simple thing to do. Pair any and all exposures with something positive. This will create good memories and pleasant associations. Usually a tasty treat is the easiest way to do this. Apart from being convenient to carry around and provide to the pup, it also provides an additional way to assess how the pup is feeling (along with their body language). If a dog loses interest in an otherwise irresistible treat, or takes it with a rougher mouth than usual, these are both indications that the pup is not relaxed.
Remember the point about positioning the pup next to the handler when encountering passersby? Apart from support for the pup, it also allows for the reinforcement to be provided conveniently. It’s much easier to hand the pup a treat (or any other reinforcer) from this position. DO NOT HAVE THE STRANGER FEED THE TREAT. It is common practice, and all too often advised, to have the stranger provide the treat to the dog. By doing so it is believed the pup will learn that strangers are OK. What often happens however, is that the pup will be lured in by the food, with no chance to assess if they are ready to be that close. When the food is taken, the pup is now really close to someone that they may not have been ready to approach if the food didn’t tantalize them over. The important thing is that the pup is being provided with something they enjoy in the presence of the person. Again, it should not come from the stranger. This will also prevent the pup from learning that passersby are treat dispensers!
Although a treat or food is typically the best reinforcement when you are ‘on the go’, anything that the pup finds enjoyable can be used as a reinforcer. As long as they find it rewarding in that particular circumstance, it will be valuable. Any activity – play, tricks, treat searches – anything that they enjoy and can engage in, will work.
And one final point. Keep the sessions short. With some things the pup may only need a minute or two to get everything they need out of an exposure. Remember that flooding will have the opposite result to what is desired. If planning to ‘get a lot accomplished’ give your pup lots of intermissions, so their brain gets a break and they don’t overtire.
Anyone taking the time to socialize their pup does so with the best of intentions. By following these simple considerations, you can really make the most of your pup’s socializing time!
For more training and care information visit:
Manners and More
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
One of the first things most people consider doing when they have a new dog is enrolling in an obedience class. If a class isn’t an option, a private trainer is often brought in to teach obedience in the home. Obedience seems to be the first thing on many people’s minds when it comes to training their dogs.
Teaching your dog to do some specific things when asked has obvious value. Obedience on its own however, does not provide the average dog with the skills they need to be ‘well-behaved’ day-to-day. We routinely have new dogs come to our facility that are already obedience graduates. Although they can perform their trained behaviours when asked, sadly, many of these same dogs are easily excited and unmanageable when not being directed. Even dogs from advanced classes often aren’t calm or settled unless they are put into a ‘down stay’ or they can’t politely meet a person without being told to ‘sit’ or are corrected in some way.
So what skills are our dogs often missing in regular obedience training?
Young puppies are in a critical phase of development and have special requirements for their learning. Studies indicate that delaying socialization can have serious consequences on a dog’s entire life. Safe socializing can and must begin as soon as a puppy comes home and needs to be the focus of their early education. And just in case you were under the impression – socialization does not mean playing with other dogs. But that’s a whole other topic…
Vital lessons include developing a gentle mouth, acquiring good social skills and getting used to all the different sights and sounds that are part of the world a family dog will live in. By the time a pup arrives home at 8 weeks of age, the critical period to learn these things is already half over. Spending time on these critical skills while a puppy is still in this phase of development, will make the lessons (and other training) much easier and both parent and pup will have fun doing it. These pups will be set up for success by creating a more relaxed adolescent who already has some great skills started. It is not possible to make up for a lack of attention to these early lessons later. Many are time-sensitive, and once the critical early learning phase has passed, so has the opportunity.
For Every Dog
How to get things they want
For many dogs, the excitement of something they love is just too much, and they lose control. Depending on the dog, it may be a passerby or their favourite toy that sets them off. Parents often react to unruly behaviour with demands or corrections in an attempt to get them to behave.
Our dogs learn instead that polite behaviours work to get things that matter to them. Not only does this help the dog learn to be polite, but they will also learn to do it by default without having to be micro-managed (constantly told what to do). And we don’t want to always have to remind our dogs to be gentle or polite, do we?
Helping one’s dog learn that they have choices is a novel approach for many people. Waiting for polite stuff from our dogs, specifically waiting for them to offer it, can be tough. It’s hard for people not to just tell the dog what to do. The value in this style of training is that it teaches the dog what TO do by showing them the behaviours that will work to get them the things they want. No hints or corrections are needed – these will actually weaken the dog’s ability to offer the desired behaviour! And the polite behaviours we make ‘work’, will have a great reinforcement history and start to feel good to do, in and of themselves. So cool!
So how does it actually work? Simple. All you need to do is decide which behaviours you like. Let’s pick ‘sit’ as an example. It’s a great all–around behaviour. Start practicing this with any items your dog wants – toys, chews, dinner. Show them you have that thing they want, but don’t give it to them right away. Keep it out of reach. Stay calm and quiet, and wait. What do they do? If they do anything you don’t like – jump, bark, or paw – withhold the item. Don’t instruct your dog. Wait for them to offer the behaviour you like (sit, for example). Praise and offer the item as soon as they sit.
Bonus point of this method:
Not only will you be teaching your dog how to get things they want by offering calm, polite behaviour, you will also be training “in real time” by reinforcing sit with real life rewards.
Having a dog pay attention or check in with us is a behaviour that traditional trainers often have to spend a lot of time on, as it can be challenging when there are distractions present. In our “wait for what you like” approach, young dogs are regularly being reinforced for checking in when things they get excited about are around – things that are distracting. They have learned that being involved with us is part of their success. They want us to notice the great behaviour they are offering, to reap the reward.
Bonus point of this method:
Being able to focus and work through distractions is one of the biggest challenges in proofing or making training reliable. In essence, we are turning distractions into meaningful real life rewards.
There are even more benefits in waiting for polite behaviour. As if we need more! Dogs will develop impulse control, learn to manage themselves and deal with frustration, and build patience. These are skills that do not develop when a dog is always micro-managed. Dogs that have too much freedom and have free access to things that matter to them miss the chance too. These skills are sadly missing in many dogs these days. Helping a dog learn these skills can take some time, so patience and consistency is required. It will be worth it, as they can truly change the way a dog behaves and how they handle day-to-day life.
Bonus point of this method:
Once dogs are outside the home, many get over-excited by the big, stimulating world around them. A dog that is already learning the value of being calm and thinking about what is happening will be much better-equipped to deal with things in the real world.
An extra word about real-life rewards:
An obvious example of something your dog loves that you can provide is food, but there are so many more at your disposal. A chance to play a favourite game; getting let out into the yard; getting the leash on for a walk; being let out of their crate. The sky’s the limit. You have lots of opportunities each day to help your dog practice.
So if you have a young puppy, don’t wait to start socializing. A puppy’s brain is set up to learn certain things that it can’t later on. Please don’t delay!
Hopefully the benefits of this “wait for what you like” approach are enticing enough that you’ll want to give it a try. And as for obedience, with the skills your dog will already have, teaching obedience will be a breeze!
For more dog training and care information visit:
Getting Ready for a Baby
Lisa Kerley BSC KPA-CTP
Ideally you’ve just found out the happy news and want to start preparing your first kid (the one with four legs) for the new arrival as soon as possible. The key to a smooth transition is early preparation. It is very important to establish new patterns and routines beforehand, so your dog does not associate the changes with the baby. Not only will you make things easier for your dog, but with some preparation early on, you won’t feel overwhelmed as the big day approaches.
By thinking and preparing ahead you will be able to have the final game plan in place before the baby comes home. Ideally the new routine should be a normal part of your lives at least a month before the baby comes on the scene. The more changes needed to get there, the longer the preparation period required.
So where do you start? Here are a couple of basic things to start thinking about.
Make a list of all the ways you think your dog’s routine will change.
In the house:
Is your dog your shadow in the house?
Does your dog get up on the furniture?
Does she make up her own routine for most of the day?
Do you typically respond to your dog’s requests for attention, such as pawing or jumping?
If your dog presently has free-run of the house, you will need to establish a routine of regular quiet times throughout the day. In addition, creating a special place for your dog to settle will be very helpful. With a baby present, your dog will need to respect the times when you require some space to safely feed and hold the baby. Along with not having to worry about tripping over a dog that is constantly underfoot, she will need to be able to chill out while you’re attending to someone else.
If the duration or schedule of your dog’s walks or exercise activities will be different once the baby arrives, start making the adjustments towards that new routine now.
Will someone else be helping out with the walks? If so, have them start taking over some of the walks now.
And don’t forget about your dog’s transportation. If your dog’s place in the car will change, get your dog used to it now (crate, seat belt harness or simply a new position in the car).
Identify the things that will be novel to your dog.
Many dogs find the cry of a baby upsetting, so it’s a good idea to start desensitizing your dog to the sounds of a baby beforehand. You can accomplish this with the real thing or recorded material. You can create a good association by pairing the cries and squeals with something tasty.
As well, start getting your dog used to you carrying a baby in your arms. You can do this simply by holding a swaddling of fabric. Again, don’t wait until the last minute to start desensitizing.
Note: Some dogs become agitated in the last trimester of pregnancy. They may become very clingy or stressed. It is important to not coddle, but make them feel secure through consistency and sticking with the routine you have been practicing. Complimentary tools, such as Aromatherapy and Tellington TTouch can be used to relieve your dog’s stress.
Get your dog used to going for walks with a baby now. If you hope to walk the dog and the baby together on your own, and your dog is unruly on the leash you need to start dealing with leash manners now. Don’t wait! Basic leash manners need to be in place before adding the challenge of a stroller. If your dog is polite on leash and you’ve done some initial desensitization to the stroller, you can head outside with the dog and stroller together. At first, it is easier to have one person pushing the stroller while another walks the dog. Reward your dog for staying calm and being mannerly. You can use treats during the first outings as bonus pay. When you feel ready you can try the same process on your own. The important thing is to work out any ‘bugs’ on the walks before the baby’s actually in the stroller!
Hopefully this has given you some ideas about things you need to consider while getting your dog ready for your new baby. Again, the sooner you start the smoother it will go for everyone.
In Part 2 we’ll discuss:
– the specifics of desensitizing your dog to strollers, carriers and sounds of a baby before baby comes home
– setting up resting stations your dog will love
In Part 3 we’ll discuss:
– last minute preparations
– bringing the baby home
For more care and training information for your dog visit:
Using Brainpower Instead of Manpower
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
How often have people told you to “show your dog who’s boss”? I get that a lot too. As a professional dog trainer, people come to me for help and advice with their dogs every day. Away my facility however, many people don’t know what I do for a living and are more than eager to give me ‘some tips’ with MY big guy. I’m told I should use a chain to assert myself and to maintain control. I need to correct mistakes and ‘get after him’ if he steps out of line. Not only am I warned that he will take over, but that he will actually become dangerous if I don’t do these things.
Over the last two decades I’ve worked with literally thousands of dogs of every size and description, from a 1lb Chihuahua pup to a pair of Presa Canarios weighing in at 165lb each. All have had their own unique personalities and every imaginable behavior or training issue. From dogs that would readily use teeth to defend anything they prized, to those that would pin strangers against walls and hold them there until rescued by the parents. Not once have I felt that resorting to harsher equipment or tougher methods was necessary or would help.
So every time I hear “those kind methods are fine for the soft ones, but they don’t work with bigger / stronger / tougher dogs”, I smile. Really? Because my guy, a stallion, weighs in at over 1100lbs.
Horses endure force and punishment in the name of training and in their day-to-day handling, even more than many dogs do. They have chains on their faces and metal in their mouths. Their heads are tied down and their mouths strapped shut. They are poked in the ribs with metal spikes and hit with sticks. This is partly because of their size, as this somehow makes a smack or kick sting less; partly because they ‘do worse to each other’, so they can certainly handle anything we might dole out; and partly because that’s the way it’s always been done, perhaps the most upsetting reason of all.
And stallions often get more than their fair share of this. They have a reputation for being intense and dangerous. Their behaviour is strongly influenced by hormones and they often respond to things in the environment much more intensely than is typical with a gelding or mare. “You can’t treat him like a regular horse”, I’ve been told again and again.
Now, I’ve seen how labels can land people in a lot of trouble with their dogs. They set up an attitude for confrontation and challenge, even before getting started. Just like the dogs I work with, with my horse I’ve focused on building a strong relationship, one where I have developed trust by being reasonable and fair in my expectations and remaining consistent in those expectations. Short-term goals never override maintaining or strengthening our relationship.
I set my horse up for success by teaching him the skills he needs to share his life with me safely and comfortably. They are the foundation of our work together. I make these lessons clear and reasonable and don’t rely on equipment to get results. Initial work is presented simply, breaking the behavior or skill down into small pieces. This allows my student to grasp the lessons more easily and reduces frustration, both important for success. Most of the lessons are started at liberty, whether they ultimately will be used for day-to-day life or for riding. And because I have taken the time necessary to teach preliminary skills, there’s no need to rely on equipment like bits or crops, to get things done.
I know that if I have over-faced him and he loses his focus, or doesn’t respond to a request or acts inappropriately, it’s because I haven’t trained him adequately for that situation. I do not react to undesired behaviours by getting upset or using punishment. Instead I get him through the situation with as little drama as possible, making extra room for him if that will help, or giving him something to do that he’s good at that will get him focused and help build a pleasant association. What I take away from the experience is not that my horse has been ‘bad’. Instead I recognize that something is missing in his training. Whether that’s something I can work on in the moment or something I need to set up in a later session, reactions or stronger equipment won’t be part of the solution.
And just like us, horses can have bad days, and may not always be at their best. I’m not going to allow an off day to damage our relationship, or be an excuse to get tough with him, either.
So what special lessons and skills are required for a stallion? Stallions tend to use their mouths A LOT and many bite. They can be pushy about space and difficult to control, especially when they get aroused. They often lose their focus because of distractions in the environment.
My first concern was for safety. I didn’t want my guy to get hurt because his emotions got the best of him, just as much as I didn’t want to get run over or injured.
He also needed to be able to cope calmly with his daily life at the barn, including having mares moved around him and being groomed nearby – both big demands for a stallion! When we are together, whether that is riding, walking together or around other horses, I need him to pay attention and follow my direction when asked.
So with a plan in mind and a clicker in hand, I taught him to:
– take treats nicely
– be calm and polite around food and at feeding times
– stay out of my space unless invited in
– get out of my space calmly and quickly
– be around distractions while remaining calm
– walk together quietly, matching my pace and following my direction, while maintaining a loose line
Guess what? These are all skills that any horse (or dog!) would benefit from knowing! The only difference was that we had to spend extra time and care on developing his attention and focus in the face of distractions. Extra care and time that I was more than willing to spend to ensure he would be safe and have exceptional ground manners. And taking this time has allowed these skills to be developed without intimidation, force or equipment.
I like to think my stallion is an ambassador for positive, force-free training. He’s proof that tougher methods or harsher equipment are not required because the animal is bigger or stronger. Every day both of us enjoy the benefits of using brainpower instead of manpower. And it sure feels good when people tell me what a polite, well-behaved guy he is, too!
For more tips and info on force-free training visit:
And if you would like to see what Bandolero and I get up to, check out:
Freedom – Too Much of a Good Thing?
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
A classic conversation that I have with new clients goes something like this:
Client: “Mitzy is SO smart. She’s only 12 weeks and she already knows how to sit.”
Lisa: “That’s great. Puppies’ brains are little learning sponges!”
Feeling encouraged by my response, the client continues: “She hasn’t had any more accidents in the house so she doesn’t need her crate anymore.”
Lisa: “Really? (Eyebrows are raised, at this point).
Client: “No. And at night she’s more settled out of it, so we just let her sleep on the bed. That way we don’t need to get up at all!”
So if a pup’s not having accidents or tearing the house apart, what’s the problem with giving them freedom? In the short term it may seem easier or kinder to just let a puppy have what they want. But wait. Whether the puppy has the maturity or skill to handle it, this approach of easy freedom early in a dog’s life takes away the opportunity to teach some very important skills – tolerance, impulse control and patience, along with developing confidence.
Consider a child that has always gotten whatever she wants, when she wants it. Experience has taught her to expect it this way, so the skills required to ask for things appropriately and deal with not getting them quickly enough have not been learned. Yikes – that’s a scary thought!
Dogs that get to decide how things happen – having free run of the house, choosing when they want your company or when they want to be alone, are in the same situation. They are used to getting immediate gratification, and as a result, have a hard time coping with not getting their way or being asked to follow through with things they don’t want to do. They will be intolerant of being denied what they want – responding with frustration, anger or stress. Not the best plan for developing patience and tolerance, is it? These are skills that must be learned, and are just as vital for our dogs as they are for our children.
So that makes sense, but what’s too much freedom got to do with your puppy’s confidence, you ask? By leaving a pup to make choices with too many options, they are being put in situations beyond their learning or skill set. Without proper direction or support, they are forced to deal with things and face challenges on their own. Even in the safety of their own home, dogs with too much freedom often begin patrolling the environment. They will react to noises outside, people passing by, and even the mailman.
Although teaching impulse control, tolerance, and developing confidence takes time and effort, the benefits to your pup are huge. Dogs that possess these skills are typically calmer and more manageable even before any additional training takes place. As a bonus, you will also be teaching them to be comfortable in a crate, be on their own and walk politely on leash. How cool is that!
Being Comfortable in a Crate
Many people don’t plan on including the crate as part of their adult dog’s routine. However, keeping your dog comfortable with it through regular use will equip you for many of life’s unforeseen situations – medical emergencies, transport, moving, renovating. These are all stressful to the dog – there’s no need to compound their anxiety by putting them in a crate for the first time in a year.
Having a secure, safe place for your dog that can go anywhere will also allow you more options and flexibility. Your dog will be welcome at more social engagements and facilities if they can be comfortably crated. This will allow you to take them more places and include them in more aspects of your life.
Lessons: Many pups are happy to sleep in their crate at night. Some can even handle being in the crate for periods during the day, if the house is empty. Being willing to settle there when the house is more active, is a different matter however. A dog’s first steps in this training needs to be very easy so they can be successful. Ensure your pup always has something great to keep them busy for the duration of their crate time – a beef chew or Kong, for example. Make sure you provide something really special, that your puppy LOVES and save it for these crate sessions. Start with short sessions – even as little as 5 minutes and practice while the environment is calm. Gradually work your pup up to where they can calmly hang out in their crate while things are happening that are hard to resist – such as when you’re prepping meals, lounging nearby on the floor or the kids are playing.
Being on Their Own
Having a dog that cannot be left alone will affect almost every aspect of your life. It will restrict how long you can leave home, and can impact even the simplest daily activities. Many dogs intolerant of being left will be destructive. Finding safe solutions can be challenging and costly. For many, the only option is providing nearly continual care via babysitters, walkers or daycares. Going out for dinner won’t simply be a matter of getting restaurant reservations.
Lessons: Continual access to you while you’re at home won’t give your puppy the skills they need to be on their own. Having your puppy regularly spending time in their crate while you’re at home, will also be setting them up to spend time alone when you have to be away. No matter what your hectic day entails, you can create a basic routine that the little puppy can get used to – something that they can rely on. With this consistency, they will learn to accept periods on their own as positive and normal.
Some puppies will wander off to a quiet place on their own. This is not the same as crate time. The point is to help your pup become comfortable with being put away and being on their own when it is NOT their idea. All gentle examples of direction from you will help your puppy develop tolerance. Short, regular sessions in their crate throughout the day will help your puppy accept imposed down time.
Although we have used the crate as an example (because of its usefulness outside the home), these lessons can also be taught using a pen, containment area or tether. Even using a safety harness in the car counts! Finding as many opportunities to practice these foundation skills will improve your dog’s ability and make things easier in the long run.
Having a dog that walks calmly and politely on leash is one of the joys of sharing our lives together. Developing good leash skills also has value to your dog’s well being. There is increasing evidence that a dog pulling while on a collar can be detrimental to their health. Additionally, poor leash skills result in unruly approaches, pass-bys and greetings. These in turn can develop into frustration behaviour, and escalate to leash aggression in maturing dogs. And with many areas now requiring dogs be leashed, it is a must-have skill.
Lessons: Dogs get into the habit of pulling because we allow it to work for them. As a result, any slow downs or impediments to reaching things of interest become a frustration. Instead, you can show your pup that displaying some patience and impulse control will get them where they want to go. When you approach something attractive, stop at a small distance away and wait for your puppy to settle. This delay can be frustrating to your pup, but you will be helping them develop tolerance and be able to reward calm behavior.
By consistently providing this space and pause, you will also allow your pup to check out potentially worrisome things safely and comfortably. Following this protocol will help to prevent reactivity.
All these lessons are best started with a young puppy. This is much easier than changing game plans later on, when a lack of these skills requires more intense and time-consuming (and expensive!) remedial training to occur.
By helping your pup develop these skills, you will be giving them the foundation that will make training much easier and allow them to progress faster than dogs without them. Instead of becoming over-excited, frustrated and unable to focus, they will be in a state where they are ready and able to learn. They will be in a ‘thinking brain’ rather than an excited, reactive state and they will be able to take direction from you more easily. All of these will ultimately help them to make good choices and decisions. Possession of these skills can help prevent many common behaviour problems from developing. As an extra benefit (as if any more are needed!) you will also be giving your dog the skills and confidence to go almost anywhere, allowing you to share more of your life together.
For more training and care information visit:
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
In a previous blog, we discussed how many people systematically teach their dog to ignore them. Although none of us set out intending for this to happen, having a dog that is attentive, well-behaved and responsive is for many. nothing more than a dream. It may seem a daunting task, but there are a few small details that can have a huge impact on creating a well-mannered, receptive and, just as importantly, happy dog. And, you’ll be pleased to learn they don’t take a lot of time.
Whether you are actively training or not, your dog is always learning. Even outside your specific training sessions, he is learning there are consequences to his actions and developing associations with things in the environment. You have the CHOICE to make your dog’s interactions with the world (and with you), positive and productive ones, or not.
But don’t worry, this doesn’t mean you have to be working on something every moment. Most of us are goal-oriented, and as there seems to be so little time to get things done, we can get caught up in getting results. Often in our haste we lose track of what’s actually happening with the little one at the other end of the leash. This can impact both your dog’s learning and well-being.
Take, as an example, having your dog meet people. Depending on how you do it, it can have a number of different outcomes. If your only concern is getting your dog to sit, you may not be paying attention to what your dog is taking away from the experience. Is the equipment you are using creating discomfort or concern? How about your handling or your demeanor? Is your dog at all concerned or unsure during the interaction?
By being aware of the quality of the experience, you can help create positive associations and build confidence in your dog. This will help to build the connection as well as build trust in you. In the situation above, we want the dog to walk away feeling great about meeting new people and feeling that you kept him safe and comfortable. And you can still help him learn to sit as part of the process!
Sadly, this is often not the case because of the way situations are handled,. It is just as easy to create negative associations, damage the dog’s trust and slow down their learning. HOW things happen is just as, and often, more important than WHAT is happening.
Keeping it Positive
Keeping all your dog’s experiences positive may seem a daunting task, but really it’s not. You just need to keep a few points in mind:
Is the interaction helping to create a stronger bond?
The quality of your interaction and the type of feedback you provide your dog will impact the relationship you have. What you do and how you respond to him will either be building trust and connection and thereby strengthening the relationship, or not. This is especially important when your dog is concerned about something. How your dog responds to you in the future, including whether he looks to you for direction or chooses to give you attention is impacted by the relationship you are fostering.
Is the experience helping to build confidence?
Attention to your dog’s emotional state is vital in creating a confident dog and an essential component of good learning.
How you set up interactions and experiences can build your dog’s confidence or damage it. Just as all socialization is not good, quality plays a part in this as well. You can set your dog up for success by focusing on what you like and make the right choice easier for him. Doing well feels just as good to your dog as it does for you!
When coming across new things, allow the dog to proceed as he feels comfortable, rather than making him interact. Give him space so he can find a comfortable distance when checking things out.
Is your dog learning something useful from the experience?
It’s easy to only react to situations and have your dog go through them with no benefit from the experience. By giving an unskilled dog too many options or conversely, micro-managing him all the time, he will not be learning the skills and lessons you are hoping for. As mentioned above, set your dog up for success!
With a bit of care and attention you can prevent your dog from leaving with a bad feeling that can affect future interactions. Rather than just taking it for granted that things are OK for your dog, it’s worth it to actively create positive associations by pairing daily experiences with things he enjoys – a treat, a kind word or an enjoyable activity.
Equipment and Methods
Your choice of equipment and how you use it influences the quality of your dog’s experiences.
Another important consideration is the equipment you choose and how you use it. Just as you can damage trust and confidence, you can also create negative associations to seemingly unrelated stuff in the time it takes for a single collar jerk or spray from a correction can. Even something as benign as a gentle push on the bum can be unpleasant for some dogs. Although this may seem a bit extreme, consider how you feel when someone stands too close, for example. It’s not really that big a deal, but it can be unpleasant and leave you looking for an escape route the next time that person appears. By simply removing these aversives, you will greatly improve the quality of your dog’s experiences.
Your choice of equipment and how you use it influences the quality of your dog’s experiences.
All the considerations above can be enhanced by learning to watch and assess your dog’s emotional state and watching for signs of stress or discomfort. Understanding body language and what it means is an invaluable skill. Like us, every dog is different in the way they experience and feel about things. Watching body language will allow you to judge how your dog is feeling and in turn, whether things are good, or need to be adjusted in some way.
These concepts apply to everything you do with your dog – when you’re just hanging out; playing; on a walk; encountering something for the first time. You are continually being presented with opportunities to strengthen your relationship, and build your dog’s confidence and skills. So keep these points in mind the next time you are together, no matter what you are doing. This attention and awareness will be invaluable in helping him have a happy, comfortable life.
And keep in mind:
If you have a young puppy, there are some things in his learning that cannot be omitted or put off, such as providing a well-thought out, positive socializing program. This part of your young pup’s learning is time-sensitive, and should not be delayed.
If you do notice something with your dog that you don’t know how to deal with, don’t delay in getting some good help, hoping instead it will get better with time. Seek the assistance of an experienced, force-free professional.
For more detailed information, please visit:
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
For many people, going to the dog park is part of the fun of having a dog. It’s an opportunity for their dog to socialize, play, exercise and burn off some steam without a lot of effort. It seems like a win-win situation. Dog parks in concept, are a nice idea. In practice, however, they often create more problems than they are worth.
Most people know to stay clear of dog parks until their pup has completed early vaccinations. From a health perspective, parks aren’t safe and until a pup has a proper level of protection from illness, parks are not an appropriate place to be. The risks go far beyond health issues however, and its not just puppies that you need to worry about.
The atmosphere at a dog park can present social and behavioural risks as well. For young or immature dogs, ‘social immunity’ needs to be carefully developed through pleasant and appropriate experiences. As youngsters, dogs, like humans, need role models to teach them good lessons and help develop good skills. For this to happen, appropriate play opportunities have to be set up with proper supervision by an knowledgeable human. Without this, inexperienced or insecure dogs will learn that other dogs can be scary and may result in them becoming reactive as a means to protect themselves.
Without the proper choice of playmates and adequate supervision, young dogs can learn that being rough and ignoring other dogs’ signals to back off, is OK. This is how bullies get created. During adolescence, increased size, confidence and hormones can often lead to rough and inappropriate play. To discourage these behaviours from being reinforced and becoming a habit, it is important that your young dog has play time with dogs that have great play and social skills. Just as with puppies, it is vital that they have good role models and appropriate supervision.
Even adult dogs can be at risk at the park. Dogs often group themselves and multiple dogs can ‘gang up’ on one dog. Small dogs are often placed in danger when they mix with bigger dogs in an uncontrolled setting. Aroused play can quickly turn into something dangerous.
Park guidelines (if there even are any) usually indicate that dogs must be “well-behaved” to be allowed. This leaves a lot of room for interpretation, as most dog owners don’t know what inappropriate behaviour looks like. Many don’t think there’s a problem unless a dog is obviously aggressive or one is traumatized to an extreme extent. It’s unfortunate that sometimes the only way you realize that any particular dog should not be present is after there has been a problem and some poor dog gets injured or traumatized. Unfortunately, most parks have no supervision, leaving no one regulating the dogs that are allowed to be there.
Additionally, dogs at parks are typically left to play for too long. Skilled play involves lots of breaks. They may not be long – just time enough for a shake off, sniff, a piddle or drink of water, but they allow for one or both of the dogs to calm down or recover and keep the play at an appropriate level. Dogs that just keep going until they drop, are not learning the subtleties of good social interaction. Over time these dogs will often ignore their playmates signals to ease up, only paying attention when the other dog finally has to lose his temper to get a break.
Remember, socializing and play aren’t a benefit unless they are done well in your young dog’s life.
Even if you are well-schooled in understanding body language and the nuances of dog interactions, that still doesn’t mean your dog will be safe. It’s common practice for dogs to be unsupervised while at the park, with parents collected somewhere in the distance, busy chit-chatting or having a latte. Many parks are too big to allow parents to stay near their dogs and be ready to step in, if necessary. We’ve even seen dogs being let out of their vehicle at one end of a park, the parent driving to the other end and waiting to pick the dog up. Others are let out of the vehicle to run free and out of sight while the parent stays in the vehicle. This lack of supervision may leave you having to step in unassisted to split up a tussle with another dog to keep yours safe or comfortable. Are you confident that you can manage unfamiliar dogs that are aroused or aggressing?
If you are not convinced and choose to take your dog to a dog park, there are some things to keep in mind that can help to lower the risks.
- Educate yourself.
Do you know how to do a “consent check” to ensure the dogs want to continue playing together?
Do you know 3 ways that dogs show they don’t want to interact or need a break (other than growling or snapping)?
Can you recognize more than 5 body language signals that indicate stress?
If you answered ‘no’ to any of these, then you would benefit from the advice of a skilled positive trainer before supervising your young dog’s playtimes on your own.
A informed handler understands what good play looks like and allows interactions only with dogs that are skilled and appropriate with their dog. They recognize signs of stress, and can identify when a dog is unsure or uncomfortable, and step in to help out. They are aware of signs of aroused, asocial or inappropriate behaviour and keep their dog safe by avoiding these dogs. Dogs need frequent breaks to keep play appropriate and establish good play habits. A skilled handler will regularly interrupt play to help keep play at an acceptable level and prevent interactions from getting out of hand.
What does good play look like?
Observing and supervising play is a big part of my day job. After 15 years, you get pretty good at recognizing the subtleties of canine body language, interaction and play. Dogs that frequent dog parks are pretty easy to pick out at my facility. Their play is rough or intense; they get stuck on a certain behavior, such as chasing or playing on top of other dogs; they don’t acknowledge signals from other dogs to stop or slow down; and often get upset when another dog finally resorts to a more intense request to take a break. Unskilled dogs usually have an agenda and their own set of rules. Good play is more like a dance. It may be intense at times, but both of the dogs involved are active participants. One dog is not just doing stuff to the other.
A skilled player:
- adjusts his play to accommodate the skill, style and confidence of his play partner.
- uses lots of body language to reassure the other dog that his antics are all in fun.
- offers a variety of play behavior versus just doing the same thing over and over.
- is happy to give and take. This means that even though he may LOVE to chase and does it frequently, he is able to accept being chased as well. Another example is being on top or on the bottom in play.
- initiates breaks and is happy to accept requests for breaks from other dogs.
- Be choosy
Many people choose a particular park based solely on convenience or proximity to home. There are more important considerations that should factor into the ones you choose.
Parks get reputations, just like other kinds of hangouts can. A particular park in our area is known as the ‘gangsta park’. There are more dogs roaming around that apparently have no parent present; more rough, unsocial dogs; and a higher incidence of fights. Although many have frequented the park without a problem, why take the risk? Remember that a traumatizing social interaction in a young dog’s life can have a serious impact on future socializing and confidence.
You should also be selective about the physical setup of the park itself. Ideally, a dog park should be completely fenced and have a double-gate for security. If not, it should be located away from roads or other local dangers. Every spring there are a number of dogs in our area that are swept away in the fast-moving waters at one local park! If the ground is mucky or has a lot of standing water you might be exposing your dog to giardia or various other pathogens. Parks that are heavily used by large volumes of dogs will build up residual fecal matter – also a health risk.
There should be separate areas where small dogs, more timid dogs and younger dogs can play safely away from the more intense activity. Is the area small enough that you can stay near your dog as they move about? If you can’t stay close at hand, you won’t be able to supervise them properly or help them if they are in trouble. The park should not be over-crowded. As the volume of dogs at any one time goes up, so does the chance for problems.
- Be involved
Remember what makes for great play? Good playmates and an involved, skilled handler. Ensure your dog is having a good experience by:
- choosing an area of the park where there are only a few dogs.
- checking that all dogs are accounted for. Do they have a guardian with them who can advocate for them when they need a hand or step in when they are being inappropriate?
- choosing appropriate playmates for your dog. Pick confident but calm playmates if you have a rowdy dog. This will discourage him from bullying and help him learn to control his excitement during playtime. Choose gentle, careful playmates for a shy dog. This will allow him to develop confidence.
- monitoring your dog and watching for signs of stress, or alternatively, for signs of arousal.
- ensuring he has regular breaks throughout the play.
- keeping an eye on what’s happening around you. Stay clear of over-aroused, rough play, or bigger groupings of dogs. If something is developing, get your dog, secure him and move to another area.
- finding other parents who are interested in creating good play opportunities with proper supervision (and with an appropriate dog!) This is invaluable and if you come across them, take advantage and set up more play times together.
Being involved in your dog’s interactions will have an additional benefit beyond safety and creating a socially-skilled dog. Typically, once parents let their dogs off-leash, they don’t interact until it’s time to go. The dog is having a good time on his own, when suddenly the parent appears and the fun ends. Not really the association we want! By staying involved, you can harness the power of play as a meaningful reinforcer. You will also help your dog to learn how to work with you around a big distraction.
You might have the impression that I’m not a big fan of dog parks. There are safer, more appropriate ways to socialize and exercise dogs, so I don’t recommend them to my clients. It’s interesting that most professional dog people don’t go near dog parks with their own dogs. Considerations for health and safety, along with social and behavioural well-being (for dogs of all ages) are typically compromised there. I hope that this information will help you and your dog stay safe and have great experiences.
For more valuable information on keeping your dog safe at the dog park, check out these 2 videos from Sue Sternberg:
At the Dog Park – The Importance of Participating: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Az6K1wZGb8
At the Dog Park – Red Alert Behavior Series
For more info on training and care visit:
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
It is a commonly held belief that getting a puppy from a breeder is a much safer option than choosing a rescue. If you believe paying big bucks for a purebred will reduce the risk of problems, think again.
As with dog training and care, the breeding industry is unregulated. This allows a lot of people to be in the business that do not have the knowledge, experience or regard to be involved in raising great pups. Getting a registered pup is no indication of quality. A producer simply needs to submit the paperwork along with a small fee and voila!, the puppy is registered. Many puppy mills and backyard breeders are producing “papered” puppies registered through very official-sounding registries, even the long-established American Kennel Club. If you want a good quality puppy, you still need to check out potential breeders in detail.
Breeders that are in it for the right reasons care about the dogs that they produce. They view them as a life-long responsibility. They’re not in the game of simply producing the pups and selling them to anyone who wants one. They will be selective of where their puppies will go and will have a screening process in place to ensure their puppies are going to the right homes. They will also remain a resource for health and care information.
Much attention is placed on the ‘success’ of the lines that puppies come from as well. Although impressive to some, ribbons and titles often have little bearing on the quality and suitability of a pup for the average family. Show breeders often have an agenda for producing dogs that exemplify the ‘breed standard’. Their focus is on recreating an ideal look that originated from some purpose or function that the breed was designed to perform. They often use line-breeding and other practices in the hopes of creating as many ‘champions’ as possible. Although the dogs may appear to be healthy, we have to ask ourselves what effect these breeding practices have on the viability of these dogs and why so many dogs produced in this system are not living past 8 – 10 years of age. Limiting the gene pool and selecting for very specific traits has had devastating effects, rendering some breeds unable to perform the tasks they were designed for, let alone eat, breathe or function normally.
For more information about pure breed dogs, check out:
The Deal Breakers
Apart from health considerations, when looking for a puppy your focus should be on the requirements for producing a stable, confident companion dog. There are 3 easy questions that will quickly determine whether you should investigate that breeder further or not. Each should be immediate deal breakers if the response is not the desired one. You need not inquire any further. This saves a bunch of time as it allows you to skip right past those you don’t want to be getting your puppy from. You will then have more time to focus on the breeders worth looking into further.
At what age do you allow the puppies to go to their homes?
Anything earlier than 8 weeks is unacceptable. Period.
You may hear excuses like the mother doesn’t want anything to do with the puppies any more. After they are weaned most mothers will stop allowing the pups to come in to feed. That’s a normal part of the puppies learning boundaries and social skills. By remaining together, they will also be benefiting from the social interactions with their litter mates.
There has been countless information available over the last 2 decades regarding the importance of puppies remaining with the litter mates as long as possible. We now know that curtailing this period can have devastating effects on a dog’s ability to develop tolerance, impulse control, bite inhibition, social skills and confidence. In a best-case scenario, puppies should stay with the litter until 12 weeks. The reason they typically come home earlier is because most breeders are not able to offer the socializing that the puppies need to adjust well into their permanent life. Eight weeks is a compromise to maximize the benefits of staying with the litter as long as possible and still having some imprinting time left for socializing with their new family and life. Anyone trying to get rid of the puppies before then does not understand or care about raising an emotionally healthy puppy.
Where are the puppies raised?
This is a beautiful facility, but not the kind of environment a puppy destined for a home should be reared in.
There are many big-business breeders that have large operations, often with state-of-the-art facilities. With special flooring, ventilation and other amenities, these new-age breeding factories can be impressive. The problem is your dog ISN’T going to be living in a factory. Before they make it into their long-term home, puppies need to be exposed to life’s realities – kids, the vacuum cleaner, the hustle and bustle of REAL life. Puppies that have been raised in special rearing areas instead of in a real home environment will be missing out. This includes barns, sheds, basements or any area removed from the living area of the home. Puppies reared on farms or other isolated areas will also have a tougher time adjusting unless – you guessed it, you live on a farm or in a rural area.
Can you meet the parents?
Depending on what breed you are considering, you may be overwhelmed by options or be very limited. Nowadays, doodles and designer breeds are everywhere because they are making a lot of people money. For some breeds there may only 2 one or two breeders in the entire country. Because of this, people often don’t get to meet the parents. Whether you are able to visit the breeder or not, you should ask if it’s possible to meet the parents. If you are given some excuse that it’s not possible, then most likely you are dealing with a mill-type of operation and you need to run – fast.
It isn’t always possible to meet the sire, (they are not always in the same home), but at least the mother should be available. It is important that you have the opportunity to see what the puppies are coming from. Is she well-adjusted, friendly and healthy? Genetic studies have shown that regardless of what happens afterwards, fearful mothers produce fearful puppies. The mother could be a grand champion, but if she can’t comfortably say hi to you, you probably don’t want one of her babies. She should be mature before being bred. Producing puppies with immature females will often allow traits to be passed along which are not desirable. In addition, she may not be mentally or physically ready to properly raise pups.
The parents should be raised as pets not as livestock. They should live enriched lives, with ample opportunity for human and dog interaction as well as exercise and stimulation. Dog-friendly handling and training should be used. All of these have a huge impact on creating healthy, happy dogs as stressful environments can have a negative impact on puppies even before they are born.
If you ARE getting a puppy from a distant breeder where you don’t actually get to visit the parents, you will be at the mercy of the breeder to provide information regarding the parents. You need to know what the parents’ personalities are like and what the puppies have been up to while in the breeder’s care. Being able to speak with other puppy parents is vital if you aren’t able to meet with the litter and parents firsthand. The breeder should be happy to connect you with other parents of their puppies. If they are raising good pups, other parents will be a good reference for them.
Looking for a really great breeder?
Although there are lots of people producing puppies, there aren’t a lot that are doing everything they can be to preparing the pups for their lives with their families. Pups that are already practicing the things they will need to do when they go to their homes, will have a less stressful transition period. This will make things easier on everyone!
A great breeder will take the time to:
- provide the best opportunity for building self-confidence and the individual identity of each of the puppies
- give each puppy individual attention away from her littermates on a daily basis
- have each puppy practice being alone from the other pups
- introduce the puppies to the car
- acclimatize the pups to being in a crate
- provide an enriched environment to maximize socializing opportunities and promote early learning
Taking these extra steps will maximize your pup’s early learning and have a huge impact on their coping skills and ability to deal with challenges. These are the breeders whose puppies you want!
These litters are spending time in enriched environments.
Their ability to learn new things, recover from stress and overall confidence will be enhanced.
Your puppy’s trip home shouldn’t be their first time in a car.
Bringing home a pup that already has some pleasant experience on its own is invaluable.
Most people can’t resist the cuteness factor when they start actually looking at the puppies. By doing some initial checking before committing to a particular breeder, you can save a lot of time and heartache in the long run. You should be confident that the breeder has done everything possible to be producing great puppies before going any further.
Without wide-spread regulations in place it is your responsibility to be able to separate out the good breeders from the bad. If candidates don’t provide you with appropriate answers to the questions above, you need to move on. Any other information is irrelevant because these puppies will be going home with potential hang-ups that will require a lot of extra work and time. Good breeders prepare their puppies for the life they will live. Not only will this prevent potential problems for you and your family – you will be supporting breeders that know what it takes to raise a behaviourally healthy puppy. You should expect nothing less.
For more information on finding and raising a great puppy, please visit:
A word about those temptingly cute pet store pups
Producers that sell to pet shops fail on every point discussed here. These pups also suffer from a very high incidence of chronic health problems. There is an even more disturbing issue, however. Both the producers and retailers that sell puppies only care about making a buck – they certainly don’t have any regard for suffering or inhumane treatment. It’s common knowledge that legit breeders DO NOT sell to pet shops. And for those of you that think you’re doing one puppy a favour because you are ‘rescuing’ it from the pet shop, you’ve just fed the demand that is keeping the puppy mill business going and allowing 1000’s of dogs to suffer unimaginable conditions. For the animals’ sake, PLEASE don’t buy your puppy (or kitten) from a pet store.
Lisa Kerley BSc KPA-CTP
Clients often comment when they watch me with their dog, “Why does he pay so much attention to YOU?” Some might believe I have a professional secret. After 18 years of being with, handling and training dozens of dogs every day, I do have experience on my side. I believe however, that something else is the key to success.
Although some dogs pay attention to their handlers more readily than others, any dog can quickly learn to tune us out because of the way we ARE with them. How we communicate with our dogs and how we interact with them both have a profound effect on whether they choose to stay with us mentally or choose to tune us out. Without realizing it, many people are actually teaching their dogs to ignore them.
1. Tune in to Your Dog
From the very first moments I am with any dog, I make our interaction meaningful. I pay attention. I listen. I watch. I reward any attention on their part by giving my attention to them. I notice when they make a good choice or even just try to. I recognize when they are confused or something is worrying them and support them or adjust something to make them more comfortable. Realizing someone is actually paying attention to them changes everything for the dog. It gives them a reason to tune in. Why should they bother to pay attention if no one is doing the same for them?
2. You get what your pay for
We all want our dogs to be well-behaved. When our dogs ARE being good, we often don’t acknowledge that. Perhaps it’s because we just expect them to be that way. Perhaps we are glad for a break from the misbehaviour. Whatever the reason, ignoring the good stuff is the fastest way to make it happen less. Behaviour that is reinforced, will happen more. That’s just the way it works. So when your dog checks in with you, reciprocate the gesture. Praise him, acknowledge him, give him something he enjoys. Let him know you appreciate it!
3. What are you saying?
Do you whisper sweet nothings into your four-legged friend’s ear? Are wonderful long-winded monologues part of your time together? Even though English isn’t our dogs’ native language, we spend a lot of time talking to them. And there’s nothing wrong with that. It helps develop and strengthen our bond. And darn it, it just feels good. On the other hand, when we are trying to relay information to get our dogs to do something or give instructions, our tendency to blabber makes it harder for the dog to pick out the important parts. In those instances we tend to say a lot, when a little would be more valuable.
Words that should be important to the dog lose meaning because of how we use them.
Does this sound familiar? “Sit. No! Down. Off. I said off! Stop That!” Using a plethora of words when you’re trying to get your dog to just do one thing, is not only ineffective, it’s frustrating to the dog.
Do you repeat yourself? Nagging makes others want to tune out, our dogs included!
And how about your dog’s name? Do you call them and then not let them know why you called? Using their name and then leaving them hanging is a fast way to turn this attention-getter into an attention-buster.
4. What is it this time?
Boundaries, rules and consequences need to be consistent. Changing them as the mood suits us is not fair. “Sticking to the rules” isn’t tough love. Changing the rules creates confusion and this can lead to stress and frustration.
Getting upset and shoving your dog off when they jump on you when you’re in dress clothes, but petting them when you’re not, is unreasonable.
Also, words in your dog’s vocabulary or cues, should each have their own meaning. You can confuse or frustrate your dog if you use them inconsistently. If you ask your dog to do something, it should mean the same thing every time. If your dog jumps on you and you tell them “Down!”, do you actually mean for them to lay on the ground?
Do you sometimes ask your dog to “Sit” and then not bother following through if they don’t right away? Or how about telling them to do something when you haven’t even taught them that yet? All of these situations could make your dog want to tune you out, rather than try to figure you out!
5. Too Much of a good thing
Every living being needs some degree of freedom for their sense of well-being. Who doesn’t want to give their dogs some freedom to enjoy the pleasure that comes with running free and exploring open spaces? If you have been responsible and taken the time to teach and practice the skills your dog needs to stay safe and be appropriate before providing some freedom, good for you! We need more like you. Offering freedom still requires some care and thought, however.
For a dog that routinely gets things on their own, there isn’t much need to pay attention to their people. They can accomplish things and acquire things independently. No need to check in, ask permission or show a little patience.
Let’s take my daycare as an example. We often hear from people visiting or beginning at our daycare, how quiet and calm the dogs are. So what’s our ‘trade secret’? It’s quite simple.
When some of our dogs get dropped off, they are literally bouncing on all fours. It would be easy to just let them right in and start the fun. While at the facility however, we want them to believe everything wonderful comes from us.
From the first moment they arrive and throughout their visits, things the dogs want – whether that is going through a doorway to get outside or to a playmate, coming out of a resting area, or getting a chew or a snack – are provided in a way that rewards them for attention. Be calm a moment, check in and Voila! – the pooches get what they want. It’s so simple and yet very powerful. We are aware of what our dogs want in the moment and use those things as Real Life Rewards. We reinforce attention in a way that is REALLY meaningful to the dogs. We make checking in have true value to the dog.
6. Are you Flexi-ble?
Extendable leashes are a popular choice for many people. They are an easy way to provide extra romping room without the risk of being off leash. They are also a super fast way to teach your dog to pay attention to everything around them EXCEPT you. By allowing your dog to continually be at a distance from you, they can gain easy access to stuff without paying an iota of attention to you. They are also great for teaching your dog to pull, rush up to people and other dogs.
7 . A little effort goes a long way
Micro-managing your dog may seem like the exact opposite of too much freedom. How could they both contribute to the same thing? Let’s consider the example from the daycare. When a dog arrives, we wait for them to sit and check in before we open the gate and let the fun begin. Some parents think the rule is “My dog’s butt must be on the ground”. So, some people ask their dog to sit; some push their dog into a sit. On the surface it looks the same, but what we want is actually completely different. When you micro-manage, you’re the one making all the effort. The dog doesn’t need to think about what’s happening or what he’s doing; he doesn’t need to make choices and he doesn’t need to pay attention. Instead we wait for the dog to choose to sit – all by themselves. By offering the behaviour without being prompted or being made to do it, we know the dog is tuned in.
You don’t need to be a professional to have a dog that wants to be tuned in to you. Creating that dog does takes commitment, however. With a little consistency, clarity and involvement you’ll be irresistible!
For more information on building great relationships and training tips, please visit